The Institute for Translational Neuroscience (ITN) represents a unique approach in accelerating the discovery and development of new medications for the treatment of alcohol and substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The ITN competitively selects and funds proof-of-principle projects addressing different therapeutic targets or approaches at various stages of development. Those projects which are deemed to have the most compelling potential for delivering near-term therapeutic advances are continued and extended; projects which do not meet this standard are set aside. Thereafter, the best ideas for new proof-of-principal projects are again competitively selected and funded to maintain the ITN pipeline. Support for regulatory approvals, data sharing, study design and outreach to commercial partners for all ITN projects are facilitated through centralized ITN core support facilities. Collaborative approaches to extension and confirmation among award recipients are strongly encouraged.